- (V)DJ_Vick_Ufa a.k.a. дядя Витя, DJ Vick Ufa - Deep Frozen (winter 2015) vol.2 HD 720p, Осенний микс (V)DJ Vick Ufa - November Rain 2014 vol. 1 HD DJ Vick Ufa - Getting Hotter (Strange Summer 14 vol. 3).
- Deep Freeze — проприетарная утилита для операционных систем Microsoft 1 Принцип; 2 Ограничения и безопасность; 3 Конкуренты; 4 Удаление.
- Смотри видео и слушай бесплатно музыку Deep Frozen Lands: Mirage in ice desert, Life of the polar explorer и другое. Проект Deep Frozen Lands образовался в 2007 году. По стилистике это Фев 1 2011, 11:32 Окт 3 2010, 13:07.
- 1). conditions ( deep - frozen soil, low tem- peratures, high amplitudes of tempera- Fig. 1 Temporary dam at the river Amazar: 1 — rocky soil; 2 — суглинок; 3.
(V)DJ_Vick_Ufa a.k.a. дядя Витя, DJ Vick Ufa - Deep Frozen (winter 2015) vol. 1 HD DJ Vick Ufa - Getting Hotter (Strange Summer 14 vol. 3).
The Pyrolytic Profile of Lyophilized and Deep-Frozen Compact Part of the Human Bone. 1 Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, Narcyzow 1, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
2 Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, Narcyzow 1, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland. Received 20 October 2011; Accepted 20 December 2011. Academic Editors: G. J. Hooper and B.
K. W. Ng. Copyright © 2012 Jolanta Lodowska et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background. Bone grafts are used in the treatment of nonunion of fractures, bone tumors and in arthroplasty. Tissues preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing are used as implants nowadays. Lyophilized grafts are utilized in the therapy of birth defects and bone benign tumors, while deep-frozen ones are applied in orthopedics. The aim of the study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of organic composition of deep-frozen and lyophilized compact part of the human bone.
Methods. Samples of preserved bone tissue were subjected to thermolysis and tetrahydroammonium-hydroxide- (TMAH-) associated thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results. Derivatives of benzene, pyridine, pyrrole, phenol, sulfur compounds, nitriles, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids (C12–C20) were identified in the pyrolytic pattern. The pyrolyzates were the most abundant in derivatives of pyrrole and nitriles originated from proteins. The predominant product in pyrolytic pattern of the investigated bone was pyrrolo[1,2- α ]piperazine-3,6-dione derived from collagen. The content of this compound significantly differentiated the lyophilized graft from the deep-frozen one.
Oleic and palmitic acid were predominant among fatty acids of the investigated samples. The deep-frozen implants were characterized by higher percentage of long-chain fatty acids than lyophilized grafts. 1. Introduction. Historically, the first bone graft was implanted to a patient suffering from inflammation of humerus shaft over 120 years ago [1.
2 ]. At present, bone transplantation is used in the treatment of bone birth defects, nonunion of bone after the injury, bone necrosis, inflammatory lesions, arthrosis, scoliosis, hip dysplasia (hypoplasia), and after the resection of bone benign tumors [3 ]. Bone grafts, besides serving as a structural support, should also induce osteogenesis in a recipient tissue. Stimulation of this process depends on bone morphogenetic proteins that are bound with collagen. The bone grafts are considered as the best grafting material because of their osteogenetic, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive properties. However, their immunogenicity may lead to the graft rejection.
Deep freezing and lyophilization are used to overcome this problem [4 ]. Both biological properties (immunogenicity, time of resorption, and osteoinduction) and mechanical strength of allogenic grafts depends on their chemical properties that are correlated with the formation of free radicals and cleavage and cross-linking of collagen, that, in turn, depend on both the procedure of conservation (deep-freezing, freeze-drying) and conditions of radiation sterilization (dose and temperature) [5 ]. As early as at the beginning of 20th century, the first studies on methods of bone grafts storage were initiated. Albie used low temperature to preserve bone, and, on the contrary, Gollie employed high temperature for this purpose [4 ]. The drying of implants in autoclave at 120°C was proposed by Rittner.
The freezing of grafts in body fluids such as blood or serum or their storage in mineral oil, alcohol, formol, or ether was recommended by some researchers [6 –9 ]. In 1951, Kreuza et al.
proposed to lyophilize the bone grafts, and, in 1956, Turner introduced a method of bone implants storage consisting in freeze-drying of radiation-sterilized tissue [4 ]. The aim of this study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of the organic composition of compact part of the bone preserved by a deep-freezing and lyophilization. 2. Experimental. Compact parts of thigh bones derived from human corpses aged 45–60 years, which have been assigned to a purpose of further grafting, were used in the study. Bone compact parts have been obtained from the tissue collection of the Center of Blood Donation in Katowice, and they were milled into fine powder by a freezer mill in order to homogenize and improve the efficiency of their further processing. 2.
Equipment and Procedure. Samples of the human thigh-bone compact structure were pyrolysed at 660°C, and the obtained products of thermolysis and 10% methanolic tetramethylammonium hydroxide-induced thermochemolysis (TMAH) were analyzed by GC/MS with the use of the Py-GC/MS system. The Curie-Point Pyrolyser 795050 (Pye-Unicam) was directly attached to a capillary column HP5-MS (60 m × 0. 32 mm × 0.
5 μ m) of a Hewlett Packard HP-5890 gas chromatograph (GC) series II, coupled with a Hewlett Packard HP-5989A mass spectrometer. For experimental data collection and mass spectra interpretation, the Chemstation software G1034C ver. C.
02. 00 (Hewlett Packard) was used.
Helium was used as a carrier gas at a constant pressure of 15 psi. Thermolysis and thermochemolysis were conducted in tubular ferromagnetic wire inductively heated to Tc of 610°C by a pyrolytic unit.
The temperature of the pyrolyser oven was 220°C, and the samples were heated for 5 s. The initial temperature of the GC oven was set to 40°C for 5 min, then increased to 250°C at 10°C/min, maintained for 16 min, and increased again at 10°C/min to a final temperature of 270°C held for 10 min. To neglect the solvent (TMAH-) derived peak, the analysis was recorded after 5 min. The temperature of ion source in spectrometer was maintained at 200°C and that of a quadruple at 100°C. All spectra were collected using 70 eV electron ionization. Mass spectra from 33 to 500 m/z were accumulated, and peaks were assigned by comparison with the library data of the 7th Issue Wiley Library.